Matrimonio de Martín García
Matrimonio de Martín García de Loyola y la ñusta Clara Beatriz Coya. (1700) - Lima, Beatarío de Copacabana.

The Viceroyalty of Peru

Officially the viceroyalty began with the ordinance subscribed by Charles V in Barcelona, on November 20, 1542.
The viceroyalty of Peru embraced a territory that covered from Panama to Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), to exception of Venezuela and part of Brazil that belonged to Portugal.

THE VICEROY
The viceroy personalized the majesty of the King, until the grade of dressing the same dress. He was chosen among the nobility, the militia and the Spanish clergy. The king to suggestion of the Council of Indies named his vice sovereigns for four years, although his government sometimes extended for more time.
The viceroy embarked toward Peru in Seville or in San Lúcar de Barrameda, to disembark in Portobelo and then to go to Panama. From here he was to Paita to continue by land to Lima.
From 1613, the viceroys had to write their Memoirs, and before leaving to Spain they should be subjected to the “residence trial” to prove that all was correct in their acts during the public function.

THE REAL AUDIENCE OF LIMA
After the viceroy the highest authority relapsed in this group. Its main function was to establish the empire of the law and to consolidate the royal authority.
The Audience was an institution created to look for certain balance of powers, so this investigated to the state bureaucracy, beginning with the same viceroy.
The viceroyalty of Peru was composed by the following audiences:
Panama (1535), Lima (1542), Santa Fe de Bogotá (1549), Charcas (1559), Quito (1563), Chile (1609) and Buenos Aires (1661).

THE CORREGIDORS
They exercised the maximum authority in the cities, they presided over the sessions of the town council, they looked for the public order and they watched over the good handling of the municipal funds. In Peru there were corregidors from 1565 to 1784.

CORREGIMIENTOS OF PERU (XVI AND XVII CENTURIES)
Cusco, Cajamarca, Saña and Chiclayo, Arica, Collaguas, Andes de Cusco, Ica, Arequipa, Huamanga, Piura and Huancavelica.

THE INTENDENCIAS
They appear in substitution of the corregimientos, due to the abuse of the Corregidors. This took place after Túpac Amaru II rebellion, starting from 1784.

Intendencias with their respective Partido:

TRUJILLO
Piura, Saña, Chachapoyas, Cajamarca, Trujillo, Huamachuco, Pataz.

TARMA
Conchucos, Huaylas, Huamalíes, Huánuco, Cajatambo, Jauja.

LIMA
Santa, Chancay, Canta, Huarochiri, Lima, Yauyos, Cañete, Ica.

HUANCAVELICA
Taycaja, Huancavelica, Angaraes, Castrovirreyna.

HUAMANGA
Huanta, Huamanga, Anco, cangallo, Andahuaylas, Lucanas, Paranicochas.

AREQUIPA
Condesuyos, Camaná, Collaguas, Arequipa, Cailloma, Arica.

CUZCO
Urubamba, Abancay, Calca Lares, Aymaraes, Cotabambas, Cuzco, Paucartambo, Paruro, Quispicanchis, Chumbivilcas, Tinta.

PUNO
Carabaya, Lampa, Azángaro, Paucarcolla, Chucuito.

The Viceroys of Peru

Viceroys of the Habsburg House

REINADO DE CARLOS I ( 1517 - 1556)
I
Blasco Núñez de Vela  (1544 - 1546)
II
Antonio de Mendoza  (1551 – 1552)
III
Andrés Hurtado de Mendoza
 
Marqués de Cañete (1556 – 1561)
REINADO DE FELIPE II ( 1556 - 1598)
IV
Diego López de Zúñiga, Conde de Nieva (1561 – 1564)               
V
Lope García de Castro  (1564 – 1569) Sólo gobernó con título de gobernador
VI
Francisco de Toledo  (1569 – 1581)
VII
Martín Enriquez de Almansa  (1582 - 1583)
VIII
Fernando de Torres y Portugal, Conde de Villar don Pardo   (1588 – 1589)
IX
García Hurtado de Mendoza, Marqués de Cañete  (1589 – 1596)
REINADO DE FELIPE III ( 1598 - 1621)
X
Gaspar de Zúñiga y Acevedo, Conde de Monterrey (1604 – 1606)
XI
Juan de Mendoza y Luna, Marqués de Montesclaros (1607–1615)
XII
Francisco de Borja y Aragón, Príncipe de Esquilache  (1615–1621)
REINADO DE FELIPE IV ( 1621 - 1665)
XIII
Diego de Fernández de Castro, Marqués de Guadalcázar (1622–1629)
XIV
Luis Jerónimo de Cabrera y Bobadilla, Conde de Chichón (1629 – 1639)  
XV
Pedro de Toledo y Leiva, Marqués de Mancera (1639 – 1648)
XVI
García Sarmiento de Sotomayor, Conde de Salvatierra  (1648 – 1655)
XVII
Luis Enriquez de Guzmán, Conde de Alba de Liste (1655 –1661)
XVIII
Diego Benavides y de la Cueva, Conde de Santisteban (1661 – 1666)
REINADO DE CARLOS II ( 1665 - 1700)
XIX
Pedro Fernández de Castro, Conde de Lemos (1667 – 1672)
XX
Baltasar de La Cueva Enríquez - Conde de castellar  (1674 – 1678)
XXI
Melchor de Liñán y Cisneros, Arzobispo de Lima (1678 – 1681)
XXII
Melchor de Navarra y Rocaful, Duque de la Palata  (1681 – 1689)
XXIII
Melchor de Portocarrero y Laso de la vega, Conde de La Moncloba (1689 – 1705)

Viceroys of the Bourbon House

REINADO DE FELIPE IV ( 1700 - 1746)
XXIV
Manuel de Oms y Santa Pau, Marqués de Castell dos Rius (1707 – 1710)
XXV
Diego Ladrón de Guevara, Arzobispo de Quito  (1710 – 1716)
XXVI
Diego Morcillo Rubio de Auñón, Arzobispo de Charcas  (1716)
XXVII
Carmine Nicolás Caracciolo, Príncipe de Santo Buono (1716 - 1720)
XXVIII
José de Armendáriz, Marqués de Castelfuerte (1724 - 1736)
XXIX
José Antonio de Mendoza Caamaño y Sotomayor, Marqués de Villagarcía  (1736 – 1745)
REINADO DE FERNANDO VI ( 1746 - 1759)
XXX
José Antonio Manso de Velasco,
 
Conde de Superunda (1745 - 1761)
REINADO DE CARLOS III( 1759 - 1788)
XXXI
Manuel de Amat y Junient (1761 – 1776)
XXXII
Manuel Guirior,(1776 – 1780)
XXXIII
Agustín de Jáuregui y Aldecoa (1780 - 1784)
XXXIV
Teodoro de Croix, Caballero de Croix  (1784  – 1790)
REINADO DE CARLOS IV ( 1788 - 1808)
XXXV
Francisco Gil de Taboada y Lemos, (1790 – 1796)
XXXVI
Ambrosio de O’ Higgns, Marqués de Osorno  (1796 – 1801)
XXXVII
Gabriel de Avilés, Marqués de Avilés  (1801 - 1806)
REINADO DE FERNANDO VII ( 1808 - 1833)
XXXVIII
Fernando de Abascal, Marqués de Concordia (1806 - 1816)
XXXIX
Joaquín de Pezuela y Sánchez, Marqués de Viluma  (1816 – 1821)
XL
José de la Serna, Conde de los Andes  (1821 - 1824)

Census in 1792

Trujillo 320.967
Cusco 216.282
Tarma 201.259
Lima 149.112
Arequipa 136.175
Huamanga 111.460
Huancavelica 30.917