Los Trece de la isla del Gallo
Los Trece de la Isla del Gallo by Juan Leppiani (1902). Museo de Arqueología, Antropología e Historia.

The Conquest of Peru

The first time that the Spaniards arrived to the Peruvian territory was during the second trip of Francisco Pizarro, in 1527. They crossed great part of the north coast: Paita, Sechura, Pacasmayo, until the outlet of the Santa River from where they decided to return to Panama. After this event Pizarro traveled to Spain. The three partners of the conquest Francisco Pizarro, Diego de Almagro and Hernando de Luque were to Toledo city where they got the signature of Toledo Capitulation, on 26 July, 1529, granting Pizarro the title of Governor, General Captain, and the “Adelantado” of the New Castile in Peru.

With official permission of the Spanish crown they went out from Panama to Peru on 20 January 1531, with 180 men and 39 horses. After having spent more than four months in the Puna Island, they disembarked in Tumbes, in April 1532.
On 15 August 1532, Pizarro founded the first Spanish city in Peru, San Miguel de Tangarará. Later they went out to Cajamarca where they met the Inca Atahualpa. On 15 November 1532 they arrived to Cajamarca where they asked for an interview with the Inca for the next morning. On 16 November, after a brief interview in the Main Square, the Inca was captured and thousands Indians were murdered. Atahualpa had gone with an unarmed army minimizing the force of the Spaniards who helped by enemy groups of the Inca were able to destroy them.

La captura de Atahualpa
La Captura de Atahualpa by Juan Leppiani (1920 - 1927). MALI

Atahualpa was prisoner for almost nine months. He had offered to fill two rooms with silver and one room with gold in exchange for his freedom. However, he was deceived and finally, Atahualpa was murdered in the Main Square of Cajamarca on 26 July 1533. Initially, he was condemned to be burnt, but when he accepted the baptism the pain was changed by the garrote. The Spaniards distributed a considerable booty; corresponding to the Spanish monarchy the fifth part (fifth King).

Los Funerales de Atahualpa
Los Funerales de Atahualpa by Luis Montero (1867). MALI

After these events Pizarro decided to go to Cusco, leaving on 11 August 1533. In the route, in the town of Jaquijahuana appeared Manco Inca Yupanqui, son of Huayna Cápac who claimed the rights of inheritance. Pizarro proclaimed him as Inca and Lord of the Four Parts of the Empire. On November 14, 1533, the Spaniards with the new Inca arrived to Cusco, the town received Pizarro with joy, he was considered like the god Huiracocha “The maker of the world” and avenging of death of the Inca Huáscar.

Pizarro founded Cusco like Spanish city four months later, on March 23, 1534. After on April 25, 1534, it was founded the city of Jauja like capital of the government.
Manco Inca, after to know the real intentions of the Spaniards in Peru, organized a rebellion that finished with the fence of Cusco, on May 3, 1536. The fight was decided in favor of the Spaniards who took the fortress of Sacsayhuaman on May 16. For this, the Spaniards had like allied to the Huancas, Cañaris, Chachapoyas, Tarmas, Yauyos and Chancas. A hero of this fight was the general Cahuide who preferred to fall down from the high of the fortress before to be captured.

Diego de Almagro had failed in his expedition to Chile. Despaired by wealth captured Gonzalo Pizarro and Alonso de Alvarado that had arrived from Chachapoyas. The Almagro plan was to take possession of Cusco. However, while he traveled to Chincha the prisoners escaped.
On April 6, 1538 Almagro fought against Hernando Pizarro in Salinas, very near to Cusco. Finally, Diego de Almagro was taken prisoner and executed in the garrote.

After this success, the son of Diego de Almagro “El Mozo” directed to the Almagro group in their desire of vengeance. This was the group that finally in Lima murdered Francisco Pizarro June 26 1541; the pretext was that Francisco Pizarro planned to kill Almagro “El Mozo.” However, the end of “El Mozo” was close, because it was captured and executed by the troops headed by Cristóbal Vaca de Castro, sent by the king to put order.
The viceroyalty of Peru, was established on November 20, 1542, designating  as first viceroy to Blasco Núñez de Vela. But he was made prisoner and executed in Quito for the rebellious group headed by Gonzalo Pizarro.
The first Viceroy's successor was Pedro de la Gasca, his mission was to capture Gonzalo Pizarro. In the battle of Jaquijahuana, (April 9, 1548) his mission was completed. Gonzalo Pizarro was beheaded and buried in the La Merced Church in Cusco, for chances of the destination was buried next to two of his enemies, Diego de Almagro and his son “El Mozo.”