La Capitulación de Ayacucho
La Capitulación de Ayacucho by Daniel Hernández.

The Independence of Peru

The period of the emancipation begins with the rebellion of José Gabriel Condorcanqui, Túpac Amaru II, noble indigenous that lead un uprising against the abuses of the corregidors and the administration of the viceroyalty. On November 4, 1780, Túpac Amaru II took prisoner the corregidor of Tinta, province of Cusco, and later condemned him to death. This fact forced a hard repression on the part of the viceroy. The Inca forces had several victories, but finally in April 5 were defeated. Túpac Amaru II was captured and executed with all his family. It is calculated that about a hundred thousand people died in these rebellions.

Tupac Amaru II o José Gabriel Condorcanqui Noguera
Túpac Amaru II

In spite of the indigenous defeat, this rebellion had a great transcendence in the colonial society, it is known that in this movement didn't only participate indigenous, but also some Creoles that had helped to finance this fight, the objective was to stop the paying of taxes to the Spanish Monarchy. To avoid future problems, the curacazgos were suppressed, replacing them for the Mayors of Indians. The use of Inca suits was prohibited and it was ordered to destroy the portraits of the Incas, as well it was prohibited the written in Quechua.

The arrival of José de San Martín, Argentinean general, on September 8, 1820, meant a new stage in the fight for the independence. San Martin came after liberating Chile, (April 5 ,1818) in the battle of Maipú.
San Martin, arrived to Peru with an army of approximately 4 000 soldiers, however, this army was every day product of the desertions of soldiers that belonged to the royal army. In different cities, the citizens organized acts in favor of the independence.

The viceroy La Serna considered that the best way to conserve his position was moving to the mountains. This allowed that Lima was at the mercy of the patriot army. José de San Martin entered triumphant to the capital on June 6, 1821. Later was proclaimed the independence of Peru, on July 28, 1821.
San Martín established the Protectorate like government form. The protector's project was conservative; the idea was to look for a prince in Spain for the throne of Peru.
In July 1822 San Martin traveled to Guayaquil with the purpose of interviewing with the Venezuelan general Simón Bolívar. This meeting was not favorable for San Martin, for what decided to abandon Peru, on September 20, 1822.

Libertador Simón Bolívar
Simón Bolívar by Arturo Michelena.

Simón Bolívar arrived to Peru on September first, 1823. He is considered the real organizer of the Peruvian army that had his first test in the pampas of Chacamarca, Junín. It was here where the Peruvian army achieved its first victory, on August 6, 1824. No one shot was listened, alone the noise of the sables. The Spaniards were defeated thanks to the surprising appearance of the battalion called “Húsares del Peru”, commanded by the general Guillermo Miller.

In Ayacucho, Pampas de la Quinua, it was consolidated the Independence. The morning of December 9, 1824, the patriots troops under the control of Antonio José de Sucre, faced the realists directed by the viceroy La Serna. Near 2:00 p.m.  in the afternoon, the victory was accomplished; the viceroy had been hurt and captured. It was proceeded to sign the capitulation in the same battle field. This document meant the birth of Peru like independent nation.